Tuberculosis remains a deadliest public health problem worldwide due to a single infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It demands more attention to combat its global Impact. However, in addition to treatment with drugs, prevention attempts were done for the last many years through vaccination with BCG (Bacillus Calmette- Guerinvaccine). BCG is the only liscenced and commonly used vaccine worldwide especially for protection against severe form of pediatric TB, but not as a powerful vaccine because of unreliable against adult pulmonary TB which accounts for most of the global disease burden. Overall efforts to safe, efficient and greater immunogenic novel drugs and better vaccine development is must to combat, prevent and treatment of both drug resistant and sensitive MTB strains for all age groups and among people with HIV. Henceforth, currently there are 10 new or repurposed anti-TB drugs and 15 new TB vaccines with a degree of diversity in terms of vaccine delivery platforms, ranging from whole cell vaccines to adjuvated proteins, recombinant and vectored vaccines are developed and undergoes different phases of clinical trials. Overall, this review gives the basic idea of new drug and vaccine development approaches, and their effective role and clinical stuts in TB prevention and treatment.
Corresponding Author: Biniam Moges Eskeziaw